The SAInT Center primarily serves as a resource for Siena College, but the center does perform analyses and allow access for outside partners. Below is a listing and brief description of instrumentation available in the SAInT center.
SAInT Instrumentation include:
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is used for the purification and separation of molecules based on a wide variety of properties. This is accomplished through the use of different columns, each one targeting a particular property (for example size of the molecules, charge of the molecules, shape of the molecule, etc.) and different solvent systems. The instrument will have multiple detectors which allow for a wider range of molecules to be separated and detected.
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is a common tool used in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, and environmental science. In this technique the wavelength and intensity of light that is either absorbed by or reflected off of a molecular compound is analyzed. Each molecular compound interacts with light in a different way and this can be used to determine the compounds identity.
Microwave Plasma - Atomic Emission spectroscopy is a tool to perform elemental analysis of solutions. This technique has superior linear dynamic range, detection limits and analysis speed compared to conventional flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and produces simpler spectra than ICP-OES.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool that enables elucidation of molecular structure including relative configuration, relative and absolute concentrations, and even intermolecular interactions without the destruction of the analyte. These features have made NMR an indispensable tool for the modern scientist, just as the related technique of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become in the medical field.
Gas chromatography (GC) is a technique that separates the various chemical components of a mixture in the vapor phase as they travel through a small column. As these components emerge from the end of the column, they are analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS), which gives an accurate measurement of the molecular mass of the compound and any fragments that it may form during its travel through the instrument. This powerful technique therefore determines how many components there are in a chemical mixture, and information about the identity of each component.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) is a mass spectrometry technique used to determine the identity of a large range of molecules including DNA chains, proteins, large organic molecules, and fragile polymers that would be destroyed by other mass spectrometry techniques. MALDI analysis is especially important for biological applications since it can analyze very low concentrations and is the main instrument used in proteomics and polymer material analysis.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a type of scanning probe microscopy, which is a general technique initially developed by IBM researchers in the 1980s. AFM works by tapping a surface with a probe to yield a profile of the surface features and composition. AFM is unique in that it yields a true three dimensional image with atomic scale resolution.
Liquid Chromatography High-resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) is a tandem technique that combines chromatography to separate chemical mixtures and mass spectrometry to identify and quantify chemical compounds. This form of analysis has wide applicability to chemistry and biochemistry and is routinely employed in pharmaceutical industry, food and environmental analysis, and for proteomic and metabolomic applications. The high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS) component of this instrument aids in identifying chemical compounds by providing accurate mass data that is used to elucidate the identity and quantity of elements present in a molecule.
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy yields vibrational and rotational information about molecules. An IR spectrum of an organic compound provides a unique fingerprint, which is readily distinguished from the absorption patterns of all other compounds. Vibrational motion can also be easily modeled computationally, which allows for collaborative studies using the Siena College High Performance Computing Cluster.
FPLC (fast protein liquid chromatography) is a form of LC that is tailored to the separation and analysis of mixtures of proteins. This instrument can also be used as an analytical tool to determine the molecular weight and composition of protein complexes. FPLC is the standard purification methodology in industry and academic research, as it enables separations that are efficient, reproducible, and can provide highly purified protein.
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a form of electron microscopy in which a beam of electrons is scanned across a sample to image a surface at much higher resolution than optical microscopy. When the beam interacts with the sample, energy is emitted in various forms, including electrons which distinguish not only topography but also composition of the sample.
Organic matter plays a major role in aquatic systems and measurement of the quantity of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) is fundamental in order to characterize water quality. Organic Carbon affects biogeochemical processes, nutrient cycling, biological availability, chemical transport and interactions. TOC is also a required measurement in municipal water and wastewater systems, and is also a valuable measurement in a host of industries.
Thermal analysis involves the accurate measurement of heat absorbed or evolved when molecules interact with one another. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is used to determine phase transitions of transition metal complexes, polymers, proteins, oligimers, and liquid crystals. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) is a high sensitivity extension of this process. Both can be used to determine thermodynamic parameters associated with various molecular events to provide key insight into how materials are changing on a molecular level.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a powerful quantitative and qualitative analytical tool for elemental analysis of materials. It is ideally suited to the measurement of film thickness and composition, determination of elemental concentration by weight of solids and solutions, and identification of specific and trace elements in complex sample matrices. XRF analysis is used extensively in many industries including semiconductors, microelectronics, metal finishing and refining, food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, agriculture, plastics, rubbers, textiles, fuels, and environmental analysis.